A very brief history of management theories

Please choose the most appropriate answer for each sentence.
  • 1

    Carter McNamara explains that views on management have changed ..... over the past century - particularly in the past few decades.

  • 2

    The Scientific Management Theory (1890-1940): At the ..... of the century, the most notable organizations were large and industrialized, and often they included ongoing, routine tasks that manufactured a variety of products.

  • 3

    The United States highly ..... scientific and technical matters, including careful measurement and specification of activities and results, so management tended to be the same.

  • 4

    Frederick Taylor developed the 'scientific management theory', which ..... this careful specification and measurement of all organizational tasks.

  • 5

    Tasks were standardized as much as possible, and workers were rewarded and punished; this approach appeared to work well for organizations with ..... lines and other mechanistic, routinized activities.

  • 6

    The Bureaucratic Management Theory (1930-1950): Max Weber ..... the scientific management theory, focussing on dividing organizations into hierarchies to establish strong lines of authority and control; he suggested organizations develop comprehensive and detailed standard operating procedures for all routinized tasks.

  • 7

    The Human Relations Movement (1930-today): Eventually, unions and government regulations reacted to the rather ..... effects of these theories, and more attention was given to individuals and their unique capabilities in the organization.

  • 8

    A major belief included that the organization would prosper if its workers prospered as ....., and Human Resource departments were added to organizations. well much before possible

  • 9

    The behavioral sciences played a strong role in helping to understand the needs of workers and how the needs of the organization and its workers could be better ......

  • 10

    Various new theories were ....., many based on the behavioral sciences (some had names like theory 'X', 'Y' and 'Z').

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