Global Production Systems

Please choose the most appropriate answer for each sentence.
  • 1

    The global and national economies, as well as individual industries and firms, have ..... a tremendous amount of restructuring in the past several decades.

  • 2

    Until the 1970s, the global economy was primarily composed of national companies operating mainly within their ....., and the system was characterized by shallow integration versus the deeper integration of today, in which global production systems distribute production across the globe.

  • 3

    ..... across firms and countries have strengthened as trade has greatly expanded and production has moved southward.

  • 4

    No longer does a single firm control all of a company's activities, but rather the system operates from a network-centric ..... and a firm is disconnected from the customers it serves for instance, Nike now has 900 suppliers and 650,000 workers spread over 50 countries.

  • 5

    But while there has been a diffusion of production, the control has solidified on the retail side as a result of consolidation among top-..... firms and a proliferation among potential suppliers.

  • 6

    The increase in world agricultural trade is partly a result of the greater market access that produce receives as compared to other agricultural products, especially under ..... trade agreements such as NAFTA and the Lome Convention.

  • 7

    Accompanying this increased trade has been a restructuring of the market from a fragmented industry with low ..... of entry to a market dominated by retail oligopolies that control over half of the fresh produce sold.

  • 8

    This has caused a change towards greater quality, supply ..... efficiencies, and product differentiation.

  • 9

    The result of this concentration and higher standards has been a decline in ..... who are unable to meet all the new requirements and a downward pressure on prices and wages, a widening gender gap in terms of wages, and increased insecurity among workers in the industry.

  • 10

    Technological advancements happen at such a rapid rate that it is hard for a country to ..... up and remain competitive.

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