Herrings

Please choose the most appropriate answer for each sentence.
  • 1

    In the 1950s and 1960s, Norwegian spring-spawning herring (Clupea harengus) was a major commercial species, ..... by vessels from Norway, Iceland, Faroe Islands, the former Soviet Union and several European nations.

  • 2

    However, during this period the stock was subjected to ..... exploitation by several European nations, especially Norway, Iceland and the former Soviet Union, employing new and substantially more effective fishing technology.

  • 3

    The annual catch peaked at 2 million MT in 1966; by this time, however, the stock was in serious ..... and a complete stock collapse occurred by the end of the decade.

  • 4

    Because of the overfishing and poor recruitment, the spawning biomass of the two major herring stocks fell ..... in 1968 and 1969.

  • 5

    Finally, with catch levels falling to practically nothing in 1970, a fishing ..... was declared.

  • 6

    In its ..... state, the adult population ceased migration and both adults and juveniles remained in Norwegian waters year round; recruitment remained weak throughout the 1970's and it was not until the strong year class of 1983 joined the adult population in 1986 that the stock began to recover.

  • 7

    Until recently the situation was quite .....: there was no comprehensive regional agreement about the utilisation of the stock, so Norway, Russia, Iceland and Faroe Islands were able to fish at will within their own jurisdictions, and in international waters the stock could be caught legally by any interested fishing nation.

  • 8

    In 1995, the Advisory Committee on Fishery Management recommended a total allowable catch (TAC) for the Norwegian spring spawning herring of 513,000 MT, but Norway announced an individual TAC of 650,000 MT; then Iceland and Faroe Islands followed ..... and announced their own combined TAC of 250,000 MT.

  • 9

    The European Union did not take part in a TAC commitment and continued fishing at near capacity, but in 1997, the EU became a ..... to an agreement limiting the maximum total catch to 1,498,000 MT.

  • 10

    The stock of spring-spawning herring showed great ..... and continued to increase.

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